SPECIFICICS OF DHYĀNA IN MOKSHADHARMA OF MAHABHARATA

Dmytro Danylov

Abstract


The research paper aims to analyze the definitions of the concept of dhyāna in the Mokṣadharmaparvan of the ancient Indian epic Mahābhārata. Understanding the dhyāna in the Mokṣadharmaparvan makes it possible to comprehend the process of forming the later philosophy of yoga of Patañjali. The seven sections of the Mokṣadharmaparvan are analyzed: 181, 188, 189, 203, 294, 321 and 333, which explain dhyāna. The results are presented in the form of six theses: (1) dhyāna leads to nirvāṇa; (2) requires pre-preparation of the mind: the collection of indriyas and the abandonment of everyday, usual forms of activity; (3) attributes of dhyāna are the following: ekāgratā – unidirectional thinking, dhāraṇā - keeping the attention, as well as svādhyāya, āsana and breath control; (4) the result is the collection of manas in samādhi, whose products are cogitation (vicāra), the distinguishing knowledge (viveka) and the judgment (vitarka); (5) two long-term goals of dhyāna are brahmakāya and penetration into the ātman in the heart; (6) yoga and dhyāna are synonyms.

Keywords


yoga; dhyāna; Mokṣadharmaparvan; Mahābhārata; meditation; Patañjali

Full Text:

PDF>PDF (Russian)

References


A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (subtitle) Etymologically and Philogically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European languages, Monier Monier-Williams, revised by E. Leumann, C. Cappeller, et al. not dated, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi; apparently a reprint of edition published 1899, Clarendon Press, Oxford. URL: http://www.ibiblio.org/sripedia/ebooks/mw/index.html.

Bedekar, V. M. (1960–61). The Dhyānayoga in the Mahābhārata (XII 188). Bhāratīya Vidyā, 20–21, 116–25.

Bedekar, V. M. (1968). Yoga in the Mokṣadharmaparvan of the Mahābhārata. Wiener Zeitschrifr für die Kunde Süd- und Ostasiens und Archiv für indische Philosophie, 43 – 52.

Brockington, John. (2003). Yoga in the Mahābhārata. In Ian Whicher and David Carpenter (eds.), Yoga. The Indian Tradition. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 13–24.

Danilov, D. A. (2016). Dhiana: transformatsia rozuminnia medytatsii vid “Rihvedy” do upanishad. Multyversum. Filosofskyj almanakh, 7-8 (155-156), 76 - 85.

Danylov, D. A. (2017). Brakhmacharia. Znachenia termina bez predrassudkov o sekse. URL: https://yoga-discourse.blogspot.com/2017/08/blog-post_8.html#comment-form.

Hauer, J. W. (1958). Der Yoga: Ein Indischer weg zum Selbst. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 487.

Kocherhyna V. A. (1987). Sanskrytsko-russkij slovar. Moskva: «Russkyj iazyk», 944.

Maas, P. A. (2016). On the Meaning of jhāna and dhyāna “Meditation” in Early Buddhism, the Mokṣadharmaparvan of the Mahābhārata, and in Classical Yoga Philosophy, Workshop “Vision and Visuality in Buddhism and Beyond”, University of Zürich, November 25, 2016. URL: https://www.academia.edu/30127734/On_the_Meaning_of_jhāna_and_dhyāna_Meditation_in_Early_Buddhism_the_Mokṣadharmaparvan_of_the_Mahābhārata_and_in_Classical_Yoga_Philosophy.

Makhabkharata. Mokshadkharma (kn. XII, hl. 174-367): v 2 ch. / per. s sanskr., konspekt ohlavlenye, vvodnye statii, primechania, tolkovyj slovar B.L. Smyrnova (2012). Ch. 1: Makhabkharata. Mokshadkharma (kn. XII, hl. 174- 255). Moskva: «Drevnee y Sovremennoe», 832.

Makhabkharata. Mokshadkharma (kn. XII, hl. 174-367): v 2 ch. / per. s sanskr., konspekt ohlavlenye, vvodnyie statii, primechania, tolkovyj slovar B.L. Smirnova (2012). Ch.2: Makhabkharata. Mokshadkharma (kn. XII, hl. 174-367). Moskva: "Drevnee y sovremennoe", 2012. – 832.

Mallinson, J. & Singleton, M. (2017). Roots of Yoga. London: Penguin Classics, 540.

Safronov, A. H. (2013). Ioga sutra Patandzhaly: kommentarii praktika. URL: http://www.yoga-sutra.org/2013/06/blog-post_26.html#more.

Wynne, A. (2007). The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. London & New York: Routledge, 192.

visañcāri nirālambaṃ pañcadvāraṃ calācalam |pūrve dhyānapathe dhīraḥ samādadhyānmano'ntaram ||9|| URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

tasya tatpūrvasaṃruddhaṃ manaḥṣaṣṭhamanantaram |sphuriṣyati samudbhrāntaṃ vidyudambudhare yathā ||11|| URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

samādadhyātpunaśceto dhyānena dhyānayogavit ||14||vicāraśca vitarkaśca vivekaścopajāyate |muneḥ samādadhānasya prathamaṃ dhyānamāditaḥ ||15|| URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

pūrvaṃ dhyānapathaṃ prāpya nityayogena śāmyati ||20||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

arāgamoho nirdvaṃdvo na śocati na sajjate |na kartākaraṇīyānāṃ na kāryāṇāmiti sthitiḥ ||16||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

dhyānakriyāparo yukto dhyānavāndhyānaniścayaḥ |dhyāne samādhimutpādya tadapi tyajati kramāt ||18||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

ātmabuddhiṃ samāsthāya śāntībhūto nirāmayaḥ |amṛtaṃ virajaḥśuddhamātmānaṃ pratipadyate ||21||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

yadā karmaguṇopetā buddhirmanasi vartate |tadā prajñāyate brahma dhyānayogasamādhinā ||2||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

yadā nirguṇamāpnoti dhyānaṃ manasi pūrvajam |tadā prajñāyate brahma nikaṣyaṃ nikaṣe yathā ||4||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

sarvāṇyetāni saṃvārya dvārāṇi manasi sthitaḥ |manasyekāgratāṃ kṛtvā tatparaṃ pratipadyate ||6||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

yogakṛtyaṃ tu yogānāṃ dhyānameva paraṃ balam |taccāpi dvividhaṃ dhyānamāhurvedavido janāḥ ||7||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

ekāgratā ca manasaḥ prāṇāyāmastathaiva ca |prāṇāyāmastu saguṇo nirguṇo manasastathā ||8|. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

dhāraṇāsucayogyatā manasaḥ॥53॥vimuktaḥ sarvasaṅgebhyo laghvāhāro jitendriyaḥ |pūrvarātre pare caiva dhārayeta mano''tmani ||13||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

thirīkṛtyendriyagrāmaṃ manasā mithileśvara |mano buddhyā sthiraṃ kṛtvā pāṣāṇa iva niścalaḥ ||14||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

maharṣayo jñānatṛptā nirvāṇagatamānasāḥ ||2||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.

sukhena tena saṃyukto raṃsyate dhyānakarmaṇi |gacchanti yogino hyevaṃ nirvāṇaṃ tannirāmayam ||22||. URL: http://sanskritdocuments.org/mirrors/mahabharata/unic/mbh12_sa.html.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Dmytro Danylov

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN (Print) : 2449-7320

ISSN (Online) : 2449-8726